PyGAD - Python Genetic Algorithm!

PyGAD is an open-source Python library for building the genetic algorithm and optimizing machine learning algorithms. It works with Keras and PyTorch.

PyGAD supports different types of crossover, mutation, and parent selection operators. PyGAD allows different types of problems to be optimized using the genetic algorithm by customizing the fitness function. It works with both single-objective and multi-objective optimization problems.

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Besides building the genetic algorithm, it builds and optimizes machine learning algorithms. Currently, PyGAD supports building and training (using genetic algorithm) artificial neural networks for classification problems.

The library is under active development and more features added regularly. Please contact us if you want a feature to be supported.

Donation & Support

You can donate to PyGAD via:


To install PyGAD, simply use pip to download and install the library from PyPI (Python Package Index). The library lives a PyPI at this page

Install PyGAD with the following command:

pip3 install pygad

Quick Start

To get started with PyGAD, simply import it.

import pygad

Using PyGAD, a wide range of problems can be optimized. A quick and simple problem to be optimized using the PyGAD is finding the best set of weights that satisfy the following function:

y = f(w1:w6) = w1x1 + w2x2 + w3x3 + w4x4 + w5x5 + w6x6
where (x1,x2,x3,x4,x5,x6)=(4,-2,3.5,5,-11,-4.7) and y=44

The first step is to prepare the inputs and the outputs of this equation.

function_inputs = [4,-2,3.5,5,-11,-4.7]
desired_output = 44

A very important step is to implement the fitness function that will be used for calculating the fitness value for each solution. Here is one.

If the fitness function returns a number, then the problem is single-objective. If a list, tuple, or numpy.ndarray is returned, then it is a multi-objective problem (applicable even if a single element exists).

def fitness_func(ga_instance, solution, solution_idx):
    output = numpy.sum(solution*function_inputs)
    fitness = 1.0 / numpy.abs(output - desired_output)
    return fitness

Next is to prepare the parameters of PyGAD. Here is an example for a set of parameters.

fitness_function = fitness_func

num_generations = 50
num_parents_mating = 4

sol_per_pop = 8
num_genes = len(function_inputs)

init_range_low = -2
init_range_high = 5

parent_selection_type = "sss"
keep_parents = 1

crossover_type = "single_point"

mutation_type = "random"
mutation_percent_genes = 10

After the parameters are prepared, an instance of the pygad.GA class is created.

ga_instance = pygad.GA(num_generations=num_generations,

After creating the instance, the run() method is called to start the optimization.

After the run() method completes, information about the best solution found by PyGAD can be accessed.

solution, solution_fitness, solution_idx = ga_instance.best_solution()
print("Parameters of the best solution : {solution}".format(solution=solution))
print("Fitness value of the best solution = {solution_fitness}".format(solution_fitness=solution_fitness))

prediction = numpy.sum(numpy.array(function_inputs)*solution)
print("Predicted output based on the best solution : {prediction}".format(prediction=prediction))
Parameters of the best solution : [3.92692328 -0.11554946 2.39873381 3.29579039 -0.74091476 1.05468517]
Fitness value of the best solution = 157.37320042925006
Predicted output based on the best solution : 44.00635432206546

There is more to do using PyGAD. Read its documentation to explore the features of PyGAD.

PyGAD’s Modules

PyGAD has the following modules:

  1. The main module has the same name as the library pygad which is the main interface to build the genetic algorithm.

  2. The nn module builds artificial neural networks.

  3. The gann module optimizes neural networks (for classification and regression) using the genetic algorithm.

  4. The cnn module builds convolutional neural networks.

  5. The gacnn module optimizes convolutional neural networks using the genetic algorithm.

  6. The kerasga module to train Keras models using the genetic algorithm.

  7. The torchga module to train PyTorch models using the genetic algorithm.

  8. The visualize module to visualize the results.

  9. The utils module contains the operators (crossover, mutation, and parent selection) and the NSGA-II code.

  10. The helper module has some helper functions.

The documentation discusses these modules.

PyGAD Citation - Bibtex Formatted

If you used PyGAD, please consider citing its paper with the following details:

  title={Pygad: An intuitive genetic algorithm python library},
  author={Gad, Ahmed Fawzy},
  journal={Multimedia Tools and Applications},

pygad Module

More About pygad Module

utils Module

visualize Module

helper Module

helper Module TOC

pygad.nn Module

pygad.gann Module

pygad.cnn Module

pygad.gacnn Module

pygad.kerasga Module

pygad.torchga Module



Indices and tables